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Even in the tumult of the war Yeager was somewhat puzzling to a lot of other pilots. What was puzzling was the way Yeager talked. He seemed to talk with some older forms of English elocution, syntax, and conjugation that had been preserved uphollow in the Appalachians. Cookbooks explain many processes step-by-step, as in this explanation of how to pit a mango. The simplest method for pitting a mango is to hold it horizontally, then cut it in two lengthwise, slightly off-center, so the knife just misses the pit.

Repeat the cut on the other side so a thin layer of flesh remains around the flat pit. Holding a half, flesh-side up, in the palm of your hand, slash the flesh into a lattice, cutting down to, but not through, the peel. Carefully push the center of the peel upward with your thumbs to turn it inside out, opening the cuts of the flesh.

Then cut the mango cubes from the peel. One such incident that has stayed with me, though I recognize it as a minor offense, happened on the day of my first public poetry reading. It took place in Miami in a boat-restaurant where we were having lunch before the event. I was nervous and excited as I walked in with my notebook in my hand.

An older woman motioned me to her table. Thinking foolish me that she wanted me to autograph a copy of my brand-new slender volume of verse, I went over. She ordered a cup of coffee from me, assuming that I was the waitress.

Easy enough to mistake my poems for menus, I suppose. We shook hands at the end of the reading, and I never saw her again. She has probably forgotten the whole thing but maybe not. Illustrating a point with one or more examples is a common way to develop a paragraph, like the following one, which uses lyrics as examples to make a point about the similarities between two types of music.

On a happier note, both rap and [country-and-western] feature strong female voices as well. Repetition, parallelism, and transitions are three strategies for making paragraphs flow. One way to help readers follow your train of thought is to repeat key words and phrases, as well as pronouns referring to those key words.

Not that long ago, blogs were one of those annoying buzz words that you could safely get away with ignoring.

Unlike a big media outlet, bloggers focus their efforts on narrow topics, often rising to become de facto watchdogs and self-proclaimed experts. Blogs can be about anything: politics, sex, baseball, haiku, car repair. There are blogs about blogs. Predictably, the love of cinema has waned. And wonderful films are still being made. The disease was bubonic plague, present in two forms: one that infected the bloodstream, causing the buboes and internal bleeding and was spread by contact; and a second, more virulent pneumonic type that infected the lungs and was spread by respiratory infection.

The presence of both at once caused the high mortality and speed of contagion. Yolanda, the third of the four girls, became a schoolteacher but not on purpose. For years after graduate school, she wrote down poet under profession in questionnaires and income tax forms, and later amended it to writer-slash-teacher.

Today the used-book market is exceedingly well organized and efficient. Campus bookstores buy back not only the books that will be used at their university the next semester but also those that will not. Those that are no longer on their lists of required books they resell to national wholesalers, which in turn sell them to college bookstores on campuses where they will be required. This means that even if a text is being adopted for the first time at a particular college, there is almost certain to be an ample supply of used copies.

But while a brief, one- or two-sentence paragraph can be used to set off an idea you want to emphasize, too many short paragraphs can make your writing choppy. Opening paragraphs. In the following opening paragraph, the writer begins with a generalization about academic architecture, then ends with a specific thesis stating what the rest of the essay will argue. Academic architecture invariably projects an identity about campus and community to building users and to the world beyond.

Yet in other cases, the architectural language established in surrounding precedents may be more appropriate, even for high-tech facilities. The bottom line is that drastically reducing both crime rates and the number of people behind bars is technically feasible. Whether it is politically and organizationally feasible to achieve this remains an open question.

Sometimes you can rely on established design conventions: in academic writing, there are specific guidelines for headings, margins, and line spacing. No matter what your text includes, its design will influence how your audience responds to it and therefore how well it achieves your purpose.

To keep readers oriented as they browse multipage documents or websites, use design elements consistently. In a print academic essay, choose a single font for your main text and use boldface or italics for headings. In writing for the web, place navigation buttons and other major elements in the same place on every page.

Keep it simple. Resist the temptation to fill pages with unnecessary graphics or animations. Aim for balance. Create balance through the use of margins, images, headings, and spacing. Use color and contrast carefully. Academic readers usually expect black text on a white background, with perhaps one other color for headings. Make sure your audience will be able to distinguish any color variations in your text well enough to grasp your meaning.

Use available templates. To save time and simplify design decisions, take advantage of templates. In Microsoft Word, for example, you can customize font, spacing, indents, and other features that will automatically be applied to your document. Websites that host personal webpages and presentation software also offer templates that you can use or modify.

The following guidelines will help you make those decisions. The fonts you choose will affect how well readers can read your text.

Decorative fonts such as should be used sparingly. If you use more than one font, use each one consistently: one for headings, one for captions, one for the main body of your text. Every common font has regular, bold, and italic forms. Layout is the way text is arranged on a page. An academic essay, for example, will usually have a title centered at the top and one-inch margins all around. Items such as lists, tables, headings, and images should be arranged consistently.

Line spacing. In general, indent paragraphs five spaces when your text is double-spaced; either indent or skip a line between paragraphs that are single-spaced. When preparing a text intended for online use, single-space your document, skip a line between paragraphs, and begin each paragraph flush left no indent. Use a list format for information that you want to set off and make easily accessible.

Number the items when the sequence matters in instructions, for example ; use bullets when the order is not important. Set off lists with an extra line of space above and below, and add extra space between the items on a list if necessary for legibility. White space and margins. To make your text attractive and readable, use white space to separate its various parts. In general, use one-inch margins for the text of an essay or report. Headings make the structure of a text easier to follow and help readers find specific information.

Whenever you include headings, you need to decide how to phrase them, what fonts to use, and where to position them. Phrase headings consistently. Make your headings succinct and parallel in structure. Whatever form you decide on, use it consistently. Make headings visible. Position headings appropriately.

If you are not following a prescribed format, you get to decide where to position the headings: centered, flush with the left margin, or even alongside the text, in a wide lefthand margin. Position each level of head consistently. In print documents, you can often use photos, charts, graphs, and diagrams.

Online or in spoken presentations, your options expand to include video and printed handouts. A discussion of Google Glass might be clearer when accompanied by this photo. Tables are useful for displaying numerical information concisely, especially when several items are being compared. Presenting information in columns and rows permits readers to find data and identify relationships among the items.

Pie charts can be used to show how a whole is divided into parts or how parts of a whole relate to one another. Percentages in a pie chart should always add up to Plotting the lines together enables readers to compare the data at different points in time. Be sure to label the x and y axes and limit the number of lines to four at the most. Some software offers 3-D and other special effects, but simple graphs are often easier to read. Diagrams and flowcharts are ways of showing relationships and processes.

This diagram shows how carbon moves between the Earth and its atmosphere. Flowcharts can be made by using widely available templates; diagrams, on the other hand, can range from simple drawings to works of art. Avoid clip art. Position images as close as possible to the relevant discussion. Italian Economic Growth Rate, — If you use data to create a graph or chart, include source information directly below. Large files may be hard to upload without altering quality and can clog email inboxes.

Linking also allows readers to see the original context. To include your own video, upload it to YouTube; choose the Private setting to limit access. Be sure to represent the original content accurately, and provide relevant information about the source. Whatever the occasion, you need to make your points clear and memorable. This chapter offers guidelines to help you prepare and deliver effective presentations. Spoken texts need a clear organization so that your audience can follow you.

The beginning needs to engage their interest, make clear what you will talk about, and perhaps forecast the central points of your talk. The ending should leave your audience something to remember, think about, or do. In the Gettysburg Address, Abraham Lincoln follows a chronological structure.

A tone to suit the occasion. In a presentation to a panel of professors, you probably would want to avoid too much slang and speak in complete sentences. Slides and other media. Organize and draft your presentation.

If in drafting you find you have too many points for the time available, leave out the less important ones. Thank your listeners, and offer to take questions and comments if the format allows. Consider whether to use visuals. Remember, though, that visuals should be a means of conveying information, not mere decoration.

You then offer only a brief introduction and answer questions. What visual tools if any you decide to use is partly determined by how your presentation will be delivered: face to face?

You may also have to move furniture or the screen to make sure everyone can see your visuals. Finally, have a backup plan. Computers fail; the internet may not work. Have an alternative in case of problems.

Presentation software. Here are some tips for writing and designing slides. Use slides to emphasize your main points, not to reproduce your talk. A list of brief points, presented one by one, reinforces your words; charts and images can provide additional information that the audience can take in quickly.

On slides, sans serif fonts like Arial and Helvetica are easier to read than serif fonts like Times New Roman. Your text and illustrations need to contrast with the background. Dark content on a light background is easier to see and read than the reverse. Decorative backgrounds, letters that fade in and out or dance across the screen, and sound effects can be more distracting than helpful; use them only if they help to make your point.

Indicate in your notes each place where you need to advance to the next slide. Label handouts with your name and the date and title of the presentation.

Practice, practice, and then practice some more. Your audience will respond positively to that confidence. If possible, practice with a small group of friends to get used to having an audience. Speak clearly. Pause for emphasis. In writing, you have white space and punctuation to show readers where an idea or discussion ends. Stand up or sit up straight, and look at your audience. Use gestures for emphasis. To overcome any nervousness and stiffness, take some deep breaths, try to relax, and move your arms and the rest of your body as you would if you were talking to a friend.

To read an example presentation, go to digital. This chapter provides a description of the key elements of an essay that argues a position and tips for writing one. To be arguable, a position must reflect one of at least two points of view, making reasoned argument necessary: file sharing should or should not be considered fair use; selling human organs should be legal or illegal.

Necessary background information. Sometimes, we need to provide some background on a topic so that readers can understand what is being argued.

To argue that file sharing should be considered fair use, for example, you might begin by describing the rise in file sharing and explaining fair-use laws. Good reasons. By itself, a position does not make an argument; the argument comes when a writer offers reasons to support the position.

You might base an argument in favor of legalizing the sale of human organs on the fact that transplants save lives and that regulation would protect impoverished people who currently sell their organs on the black market. Convincing evidence. For example, to support your position that fast food should be taxed, you might cite a nutrition expert who links obesity to fast food, offer facts that demonstrate the health-care costs of widespread obesity, and provide statistics that show how taxation affects behavior.

Careful consideration of other positions. No matter how reasonable you are in arguing your position, others may disagree or hold other positions. Widely debated topics such as animal rights or gun control can be difficult to write on if you have no personal connection to them. Better topics include those that interest you right now, are focused, and have some personal connection to your life.

Identify issues that interest you. Pick a few of the roles you list, and identify the issues that interest or concern you. Try wording each issue as a question starting with should: Should college cost less than it does?

Should student achievement be measured by standardized tests? What would be better than standardized tests for measuring student achievement? This strategy will help you think about the issue and find a clear focus for your essay. Choose one issue to write about. Generating ideas and text.

Most essays that successfully argue a position share certain features that make them interesting and persuasive. Consider what interests you about the topic and what more you may need to learn in order to write about it. It may help to do some preliminary research; start with one general source of information a news magazine or Wikipedia, for example to find out the main questions raised about your issue and to get some ideas about how you might argue it. There are various ways to qualify your thesis: in certain circumstances, under certain conditions, with these limitations, and so on.

You need to convince your readers that your thesis is plausible. Start by stating your position and then answering the question why? This analysis can continue indefinitely as the underlying reasons grow more and more general and abstract. Identify other positions. Think about positions that differ from yours and about the reasons that might be given for those positions. To refute other positions, state them as clearly and as fairly as you can, and then show why you believe they are wrong.

Perhaps the reasoning is faulty or the supporting evidence is inadequate. Acknowledge their merits, if any, but emphasize their shortcomings. Ways of organizing an argument. Alternatively, you might discuss each reason and any counterargument to it together.

And be sure to consider the order in which you discuss your reasons. Usually, what comes last makes the strongest impression on readers, and what comes in the middle makes the weakest impression. End with Give the a call to second action, a reason, with support.

To read an example argument essay, go to digital. This chapter describes the key elements of an essay that analyzes a text and provides tips for writing one. Your readers may not know the text you are analyzing, so you need to include it or tell them about it before you can analyze it.

Attention to the context. All texts are part of ongoing conversations, controversies, or debates, so to understand a text, you need to understand its larger context. To analyze the lyrics of a new hip-hop song, you might need to introduce other artists that the lyrics refer to or explain how the lyrics relate to aspects of hip-hop culture.

A clear interpretation or judgment. When you interpret something, you explain what you think it means. In an analysis of a cologne advertisement, you might explain how the ad encourages consumers to objectify themselves. Reasonable support for your conclusions. You might support your interpretation by quoting passages from a written text or referring to images in a visual text.

Most of the time, you will be assigned a text or a type of text to analyze: the work of a political philosopher in a political science class, a speech in a history or communications course, a painting or sculpture in an art class, and so on.

You might also analyze three or four texts by examining elements common to all. In analyzing a text, your goal is to understand what it says, how it works, and what it means. To do so, you may find it helpful to follow a certain sequence for your analysis: read, respond, summarize, analyze, and draw conclusions.

Read to see what the text says. Start by reading carefully, noting the main ideas, key words and phrases, and anything that seems noteworthy or questionable. Do you find the text difficult? Do you agree with what the writer says? Decide what you want to analyze. Think about what you find most interesting about the text and why. Does the language interest you? You might begin your analysis by exploring what attracted your notice.

Think about the larger context. All texts are part of larger conversations, and academic texts include documentation partly to weave in voices from the conversation. Does he or she respond to something others have said? Is there any terminology that suggests that he or she is allied with a particular intellectual school or academic discipline?

Words like false consciousness or hegemony, for instance, would suggest that the text was written by a Marxist scholar.

Consider what you know about the writer or artist. The credentials, other work, reputation, stance, and beliefs of the person who created the text are all useful windows into understanding it. Write a sentence or two summarizing what you know about the creator and how that information affects your understanding of the text. Visual texts might be made up of images, lines, angles, color, light and shadow, and sometimes words.

Look for patterns in the way these elements are used. Write a sentence or two describing the patterns you discover and how they contribute to what the text says. Analyze the argument. What is the main point the writer is trying to make? Are the reasons plausible and sufficient?

Are the arguments appropriately qualified? How credible and current are they? After considering these questions, write a sentence or two summarizing the argument and your reactions to it.

Come up with a thesis. Do you want to show that the text has a certain meaning? Your analysis might be structured in at least two ways. You might discuss patterns or themes that run through the text. Alternatively, you might analyze each text or section of text separately. State your thesis. To read an example rhetorical analysis, go to digital.

Newspapers report on local and world events; textbooks give information about biology, history, writing; websites provide information about products jcrew. Very often this kind of writing calls for research: you need to know your subject in order to report on it.

This chapter describes the key elements found in most reports and offers tips for writing one. Accurate, well-researched information. Reports usually require some research. The kind of research depends on the topic. Library research may be necessary for some topics—for a report on migrant laborers during the Great Depression, for example.

Most current topics, however, require internet research. For a report on local farming, for example, you might interview some local farmers. Various writing strategies. For example, a report on the benefits of exercise might require that you classify types of exercise, analyze the effects of each type, and compare the benefits of each. For a report on the financial crisis for a general audience, for example, you might need to define terms such as mortgage-backed security and predatory lending.

Appropriate design. Numerical data, for instance, can be easier to understand in a table than in a paragraph. A photograph can help readers see a subject, such as an image of someone texting while driving in a report on car accidents. If you get to choose your topic, consider what interests you and what you wish you knew more about. They may be academic in nature or reflect your personal interests, or both.

Even if an assignment seems to offer little flexibility, you will need to decide how to research the topic and how to develop your report to appeal to your audience. And sometimes even narrow topics can be shaped to fit your own interests. Start with sources that can give you a general sense of the subject, such as a Wikipedia entry or an interview with an expert.

Your goal at this point is to find topics to report on and then to focus on one that you will be able to cover. Come up with a tentative thesis. Once you narrow your topic, write out a statement saying what you plan to report on or explain.

Think about what kinds of information will be most informative for your audience, and be sure to consult multiple sources and perspectives. Revisit and finalize your thesis in light of your research findings. Ways of organizing a report [Reports on topics that are unfamiliar to readers] Begin Explain by with an anecdote, quote, or other means of interesting comparing, Provide background, and state your thesis.

Describe classifying, your topic, analyzing defining causes or any key effects, terms. Conclude by restating your thesis or referring to your beginning. Conclude by topic; provide any necessary background information; state your Narrate the second event or procedure.

Narrate the third event or procedure. Repeat as necessary. Conclude by restating your Repeat as necessary. To read an example report, go to digital. Parents read their children bedtime stories as an evening ritual. Preachers base their sermons on religious stories to teach lessons about moral behavior. Grandparents tell how things used to be, sometimes telling the same stories year after year. College applicants write about significant moments in their lives.

Writing students are often called on to compose narratives to explore their personal experiences. This chapter describes the key elements of personal narratives and provides tips for writing one. Most narratives set up some sort of situation that needs to be resolved.

That need for resolution makes readers want to keep reading. Vivid detail. Details can bring a narrative to life by giving readers vivid mental images of the sights, sounds, smells, tastes, and textures of the world in which your story takes place. To give readers a picture of your childhood home in the country, you might describe the gnarled apple trees in your backyard and the sound of crickets chirping on a spring night.

You may reveal its significance in various ways, but try not to state it too directly, as if it were a kind of moral of the story. Describe the setting. List the places where your story unfolds. Think about the key people. Narratives include people whose actions play an important role in the story.

Try narrating the action using active and specific verbs pondered, shouted, laughed to capture what happened. Consider the significance. You need to make clear why the event you are writing about matters. How did it change or otherwise affect you? What aspects of your life now can you trace to that event?

How might your life have been different if this event had not happened? Ways of organizing a personal narrative. Tell about what happened. Say how Say the conflict something was about the resolved. Fill in details: setting, people, specific actions. Make clear how the situation was resolved. Say something about the significance. To read an example narrative, go to digital. In both cases, you go below the surface to deepen your understanding of how the texts work and what they mean.

This chapter describes the key elements expected in most literary analyses and provides tips for writing one. Your thesis, then, should be arguable. You might argue, for example, that the dialogue between two female characters in a short story reflects current stereotypes about gender roles.

Careful attention to the language of the text. Attention to patterns or themes. Literary analyses are usually built on evidence of meaningful patterns or themes within a text or among several texts.

When you write a literary analysis, you show one way the text may be understood, using evidence from the text and, sometimes, relevant contextual evidence to support what you think the text means. MLA style. Start by considering whether your assignment specifies a particular kind of analysis or critical approach. Look for words that say what to do: analyze, compare, interpret, and so on.

Choose a method for analyzing the text. Trace the development and expression of themes, characters, and language through the work.

How do they help to create particular meaning, tone, or effects? Explore the way the text affects you as you read through it. Read closely, noticing how the elements of the text shape your responses, both intellectual and emotional. How has the author evoked your response?

Read the work more than once. When you first experience a piece of literature, you usually focus on the story, the plot, the overall meaning. Compose a strong thesis. Your goal is not to pass judgment but to suggest one way of seeing the text. Do a close reading. Find specific, brief passages that support your interpretation; then analyze those passages in terms of their language, their context, and your reaction to them as a reader.

Why does the writer choose this language, these words? What is their effect? If something is repeated, what significance does the pattern have? Support your argument with evidence. The parts of the text you examine in your close reading become the evidence you use to support your interpretation. Paying attention to matters of style. Literary analyses have certain conventions for using pronouns and verbs.

Describe the historical context of the setting in the past tense. Document your sources. To read an example literary analysis, go to digital. Lovers propose marriage; students propose that colleges provide healthier food options in campus cafeterias. These are all examples of proposals, ideas put forward that offer solutions to some problem.

All proposals are arguments: when you propose something, you are trying to persuade others to consider—and hopefully to accept—your solution to the problem. This chapter describes the key elements of a proposal and provides tips for writing one. Some problems are self-evident and relatively simple, and you would not need much persuasive power to make people act.

While some might not see a problem with colleges discarding too much paper, for example, most are likely to agree that recycling is a good thing.

Other issues are more controversial: some people see them as problems while others do not. For example, some believe that motorcycle riders who do not wear helmets risk serious injury and also raise the cost of health care for all of us, but others think that wearing a helmet—or not—should be a personal choice; you would have to present arguments to convince your readers that not wearing a helmet is indeed a problem needing a solution.

A solution to the problem. Once you have defined the problem, you need to describe the solution you are suggesting and to explain it in enough detail for readers to understand what you are proposing. Sometimes you might suggest several possible solutions, analyze their merits, and then say which one you think will most likely solve the problem.

You need to provide evidence to convince readers that your solution is feasible—and that it will, in fact, solve the problem. A response to questions readers may have. You need to consider any questions readers may have about your proposal—and to show how its advantages outweigh any disadvantages. A proposal for recycling paper, for example, would need to address questions about the costs of recycling bins and separate trash pickups.

A call to action. The goal of a proposal is to persuade readers to accept your proposed solution—and perhaps to take some kind of action. You may want to conclude your proposal by noting the outcomes likely to result from following your recommendations. An appropriate tone. Readers will always react better to a reasonable, respectful presentation than to anger or self-righteousness.

Choose a problem that can be solved. Large, complex problems such as poverty, hunger, or terrorism usually require large, complex solutions. Most of the time, focusing on a smaller problem or a limited aspect of a large problem will yield a more manageable proposal. Rather than tackling the problem of world poverty, for example, think about the problem faced by people in your community who have lost jobs and need help until they find employment. Most successful proposals share certain features that make them persuasive.

Explore several possible solutions to the problem. Decide on the most desirable solution s. One solution may be head and shoulders above others, but be open to rejecting all the possible solutions on your list and starting over if you need to, or to combining two or more potential solutions in order to come up with an acceptable fix. Think about why your solution is the best one.

What has to be done to enact it? What will it cost? What makes you think it can be done? Why will it work better than others? Ways of organizing a proposal. You can organize a proposal in various ways, but you should always begin by establishing that there is a problem. You may then identify several possible solutions before recommending one of them or a combination of several.

Sometimes, however, you might discuss only a single solution. Identify possible Propose a Call for action, solutions and solution and or reiterate consider their pros give reasons your proposed and cons one by one. Anticipate and answer questions. To read an example proposal, go to digital.

Such essays are our attempt to think something through by writing about it and to share our thinking with others. A reflective essay has a dual purpose: to ponder something you find interesting or puzzling and to share your thoughts with an audience.

Whatever your subject, your goal is to explore it in a way that will interest others. One way to do that is to start by considering your own experience and then moving on to think about more universal experiences that your readers may share. For example, you might write about your dog, and in doing so you could raise questions and offer insights about the ways that people and animals interact.

Some kind of structure. A reflective essay can be organized in many ways, but it needs to have a clear structure. Whether you move from detail to detail or focus your reflection on one central question or insight about your subject, all your ideas need to relate, one way or another. The challenge is to keep your readers interested as you explore your topic and to leave them satisfied that the journey was interesting and thought-provoking.

Every now and then someone will cheer her on. Details such as these will help your readers understand and care about your subject.

A questioning, speculative tone. So your tone will often be tentative and open, demonstrating a willingness to entertain, try out, accept, and reject various ideas as your essay progresses from beginning to end, maybe even asking questions for which you can provide no direct answers. Choose a subject you want to explore. Make a list of things that you think about, wonder about, find puzzling or annoying.

Explore your subject in detail. Reflections often include descriptive details that provide a base for the speculations to come. Back away. Ask yourself why your subject matters: why is it important or intriguing or otherwise significant? Your goal is to think on screen or paper about your subject, to see where it leads you.

Think about how to keep readers with you. Reflections must be carefully crafted so that readers can follow your train of thought. Ways of organizing a reflective essay. Reflections may be organized in many ways because they mimic the way we think, sometimes associating one idea with another in ways that make sense but do not necessarily follow the kinds of logical progression found in academic arguments or reports. Here are two ways you might organize a reflection.

To read an example reflective essay, go to digital. You may be assigned to create annotated bibliographies to weigh the potential usefulness of sources and to document your search efforts. This chapter describes the key elements of an annotated bibliography and provides tips for writing two kinds of annotations: descriptive and evaluative. Doherty, Thomas. Unwin Hyman, A historical discussion of the identification of teenagers as a targeted film market.

Foster, Harold M. An evaluation of the potential of using teen films such as Sixteen Candles and The Karate Kid to instruct adolescents on the difference between film as communication and film as exploitation.

They are often helpful in assessing how useful a source will be for your own writing. Gore, A. An inconvenient truth: The planetary emergency of global warming and what we can do about it. New York, NY: Rodale. It centers on how the atmosphere is very thin and how greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide are making it thicker. The thicker atmosphere traps more infrared radiation, causing warming of the Earth. He includes several examples of problems caused by global warming.

Penguins and polar bears are at risk because the glaciers they call home are quickly melting. Coral reefs are being bleached and destroyed when their inhabitants overheat and leave. For example, many highways in Alaska are only frozen enough to be driven on fewer than 80 days of the year.

In China and elsewhere, recordsetting floods and droughts are taking place. Hurricanes are on the rise. It is useful because it relies on scientific data that can be referred to easily and it provides a solid foundation for me to build on.

For example, it explains how carbon dioxide is produced and how it is currently affecting plants and animals. This evidence could potentially help my research on how humans are biologically affected by global warming. It will also help me structure my essay, using its general information to lead into the specifics of my topic. For example, I could introduce the issue by explaining the thinness of the atmosphere and the effect of greenhouse gases, then focus on carbon dioxide and its effects on organisms.

A concise description of the work. Relevant commentary. If you write an evaluative bibliography, your comments should be relevant to your purpose and audience. To achieve relevance, consider what questions a potential reader might have about the sources.

Consistent presentation. All annotations should be consistent in content, sentence structure, and format. If one annotation is written in complete sentences, they should all be. Decide what sources to include. Though you may be tempted to include every source you find, a better strategy is to include only those sources that you or your readers may find useful in researching your topic.

Is this source relevant to your topic? Is it general or specialized? Are the author and the publisher or sponsor reputable? Does the source present enough evidence? Does it show any particular bias? Does the source reflect current thinking or research? Decide whether the bibliography should be descriptive or evaluative. Read carefully. To quickly determine whether a source is likely to serve your needs, first check the publisher or sponsor; then read the preface, abstract, or introduction; skim the table of contents or the headings; and read the parts that relate specifically to your topic.

Research the writer, if necessary. In any case, information about the writer should take up no more than one sentence in your annotation. Summarize the work. Sumarize it as objectively as possible: even if you are writing an evaluative annotation, you can evaluate the central point of a work better by stating it clearly first.

You may find, however, that some parts are useful while others are not, and your evaluation should reflect that mix. Ways of organizing an annotated bibliography. Depending on their purpose, annotated bibliographies may or may not include an introduction. State scope. List first List second List third List final alphabeti- alphabeti- alphabeti- alphabeti- cal entry, cal entry, cal entry, cal entry, and anno- and anno- and anno- and anno- tate it.

Sometimes an annotated bibliography needs to be organized into several subject areas or genres, periods, or some other category ; if so, the entries are listed alphabetically within each category. Category 2 alphabetically, and annotate them. List entries Explain category 2.

To read an example annotated bibliography, go to digital. You may be required to include an abstract in a report or as a preview of a presentation you plan to give at an academic or professional conference. This chapter provides tips for writing three common kinds: informative, descriptive, and proposal. That one paragraph must mention all the main points or parts of the paper: a description of the study or project, its methods, the results, and the conclusions.

Here is an example of the abstract accompanying a seven-page essay that appeared in in the Journal of Clinical Psychology: The relationship between boredom proneness and health-symptom reporting was examined. The results suggest that boredom proneness may be an important element to consider when assessing symptom reporting. Implications for determining the effects of boredom proneness on psychological- and physicalhealth symptoms, as well as the application in clinical settings, are discussed.

They usually do not summarize the entire paper, give or discuss results, or set out the conclusion or its implications. The findings and their application in clinical settings are discussed. You prepare them to persuade someone to let you write on a topic, pursue a project, conduct an experiment, or present a paper at a scholarly conference; often the abstract is written before the paper itself.

Titles and other aspects of the proposal deliberately reflect the theme of the proposed work, and you may use the future tense to describe work not yet completed. Here is a possible proposal for doing research on boredom and health problems: Undergraduate students will complete the Boredom Proneness Scale and the Hopkins Symptom Checklist. A multiple analysis of covariance will be performed to determine the relationship between boredom-proneness total scores and ratings on the five subscales of the Hopkins Symptom Checklist ObsessiveCompulsive, Somatization, Anxiety, Interpersonal Sensitivity, and Depression.

An informative abstract includes enough information to substitute for the report itself; a descriptive abstract offers only enough information to let the audience decide whether to read further; and a proposal abstract gives an overview of the planned work. Objective description. Abstracts present information on the contents of a report or a proposed study; they do not present arguments about or personal perspectives on those contents.

Unless you are writing a proposal abstract, you should write the paper first. You can then use the finished work as the guide for the abstract, which should follow the same basic structure. Copy and paste key statements. Copy and paste those sentences into a new document to create a rough draft. Pare down the rough draft. Introduce the overall scope of your study, and include any other information that seems crucial to understanding your work. Conform to any length requirements.

In general, an informative abstract should be at most 10 percent as long as the original and no longer than the maximum length allowed. Descriptive abstracts should be shorter still, and proposal abstracts should conform to the requirements of the organization calling for the proposal. Ways of organizing an abstract [An informative abstract] State conclusions of study. State Summarize nature of method of study.

State implications of study. To read an example abstract, go to digital. We read cookbooks to find out how to make brownies; we read textbooks to learn about history, biology, and other academic topics.

And as writers, we read our own drafts to make sure they say what we mean. In other words, we read for many different purposes. Following are some strategies for reading with a critical eye. It always helps to approach new information in the context of what we already know.

List any terms or phrases that come to mind, and group them into categories. Then, or after reading a few paragraphs, list any questions that you expect, want, or hope to be answered as you read, and number them according to their importance to you. Finally, after you read the whole text, list what you learned from it.

Preview the text. Start by skimming to get the basic ideas; read the title and subtitle, any headings, the first and last paragraphs, the first sentences of all the other paragraphs. Study any visuals.

Think about your initial response. Read the text to get a sense of it; then jot down brief notes about your initial reaction, and think about why you reacted as you did. What aspects of the text account for this reaction? Highlight key words and phrases, connect ideas with lines or symbols, and write comments or questions in the margins.

What you annotate depends on your purpose. One simple way of annotating is to use a coding system, such as a check mark to indicate passages that confirm what you already thought, an X for ones that contradict your previous thinking, a question mark for ones that are puzzling or confusing, an exclamation point or asterisk for ones that strike you as important, and so on.

You might also circle new words that you need to look up. Play the believing and doubting game. Analyze how the text works. Outline the text paragraph by paragraph. Are there any patterns in the topics the writer addresses? How has the writer arranged ideas, and how does that arrangement develop the topic? Identify patterns. The writer will confirm whether they will submit the paper within the set deadline. After confirmation, your paper will be delivered on time.

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Microsoft powerpoint 2016 step by step by joan lambert free

Now in full color! The quick way to learn Microsoft PowerPoint ! This is learning made easy. Get more done quickly with PowerPoint Read “Microsoft PowerPoint Step by Step” by Joan Lambert available from Rakuten Kobo. Now in full color! The quick way to learn Microsoft PowerPoint. Microsoft PowerPoint Step by Step Joan Lambert PUBLISHED BY a Microsoft account, sign up for a free or account and register.


Microsoft powerpoint 2016 step by step by joan lambert free


Some have went so far as to abandon the book completely and rely on just their notes from class demonstrations as they find these easier to follow without all the extra confusion the books seem to now add to the learning process.

I will be switching to a different book for future classes I teach. I read through the book hoping to learn PowerPoint.

In the introduction, there is a website where to go to download the files. The link is dead. It no longer exists. When I attempted to contact them at the email address, that, too, was dead. Without the files, the book is useless. Save your money and buy another book where the authors have the courtesy to provide you with the materials needed to learn the topic.

Was disappointing as I could not locate the practice files from the website given. See all reviews. Top reviews from other countries. The book is ok but would not recommend it for beginners. However, it doesn’t make it easier because you cannot download the Step by Step exercise files from the link they suggest on the back of the book. For the price, without the exercises to follow, is expensive.

Report abuse. Really good. The book is clear and easy to follow, however, I cannot find the practice files to download them. I have emailed the company a couple of times to ask for help but they haven’t replied. I will start studying this and other books in a few weeks.

It’s thick, has lots of pages. It also came in excellent condition. I’m very pleased with the condition the book is in.

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Display the Text Box page of settings. Click Do not Autofit, Shrink text on overflow, or Resize shape to fit text. To change the default AutoFit settings for all placeholders 1. On the AutoFormat As You Type tab, select or clear the options to automatically fit title text and body text to placeholders.

Or you might want to add arrows or graphic icons to convey meaning. You can insert a variety of nonstandard characters, including mathematical operators. PowerPoint gives you easy access to a huge array of symbols that you can easily insert into any slide. Like graphics, symbols can add visual information or eye-appeal to a slide.

However, they are different from graphics in that they are actually characters of a specific font alphabet—usually one of the Wingdings family of fonts. The AutoCorrect and AutoFormat functions replace the key combinations with the symbols. Fonts might include Latin, Greek, Coptic, Cyrillic, and many other extended character sets. Position the cursor where you want to insert the symbol. On the Insert tab, in the Symbols group, click the Symbol button to open the Symbol dialog box.

In the dialog box, click the Font list, and then click a symbol font such as Symbol, Webdings, or Wingdings to display the characters of that font. Scroll the character pane up and down to display additional characters. If the symbol you want to insert is among those in this area, you can insert it from there. To insert a special character 1. Position the cursor where you want to insert the special character.

On the Insert tab, in the Symbols group, click the Symbol button. In the Subset list, click the subset of characters you want to display. Add supplementary text to slides The size and position of the placeholders on a slide, and the formatting of the content within the placeholders, are dictated by the slide layout. You can modify slide content, and you can reset modified content that is within the placeholders to the defaults by reapplying the slide layout.

If you want to add text outside of a placeholder, you can create an independent text box and enter the text there. You can move, size, and format text boxes by using the same techniques that you do with shapes. You can add supplementary text by inserting a text box Enter text on slides The text that you enter into a text box takes on the default formatting associated with text boxes. You can format the text by using all the usual text-formatting methods.

If your presentation must be compatible with these devices, avoid putting important information in text boxes. On the Insert tab, in the Text group, click the Text Box button. The width of the text box expands to fit what you enter on one line.

On the slide, drag a box where you want the text box to appear, and then enter the text. The box adjusts to the height of one line, but maintains the width you specified. When the text reaches the right boundary of the box, the height of the box expands by one line so that the text can wrap.

As you continue entering text, the width of the box stays the same, but the height grows as necessary to accommodate all the text. To set the default formatting for text boxes 1. Apply the formatting that you want to set as the default. Select the text box. But you can also create entire mathematical equations on a slide.

You can insert some predefined equations by selecting them from a menu. Each equation has Professional and Linear forms. The Professional form displays the equation on multiple line levels, whereas the Linear form displays it on only one line.

PowerPoint uses the Linear form when you insert the equation in a bulleted list item, and otherwise uses the Professional form. The Professional and Linear form options are available by name in other Office apps If you need something other than these standard equations, you can build your own equations by using a library of mathematical symbols.

You build the equation by using the commands on the Design tool tab in the Equation Tools tab group. You enter the text for the footer in the Header And Footer dialog box Chapter 4: Enter and edit text on slides To add standard footer information to every slide in a presentation 1.

Then click Update automatically, and click the format you want to display the date and time in, or click Fixed, and then enter the date and time as you want to display them. Select the Slide number check box. Select the Footer check box, and then in the text box, enter the text you want to display at the bottom of the page. Click Apply to All.

Move, copy, and delete text After you enter text, you can use standard techniques to change it at any time. Selected text appears highlighted on the screen. To highlight text is to apply the Highlight character format. You can select content by using the mouse, using the keyboard, tapping, or combining multiple tools.

When you select content, PowerPoint displays the Mini Toolbar, from which you can quickly format the selection or perform other actions, depending on the type of content you select. This method is easiest to use when you can display the original location and destination on the screen at the same time.

You can cut or copy the text from the original location to the Clipboard and then paste it from the Clipboard into the new location. There are multiple methods for cutting, copying, and pasting text. No matter which method you use, when you cut text, PowerPoint removes it from its original location. When you copy text, PowerPoint leaves the original text intact.

The available options vary depending on the type of content that you have cut or copied to the Clipboard. For example, when you are pasting text, the Paste menu includes buttons for adopting the destination theme, keeping source formatting, pasting unformatted text, or pasting the content as a picture. Pointing to a button displays the paste option name in a ScreenTip, and a preview of how the source content will look if you use that option to paste it at the current location.

The Clipboard is a temporary storage area that is shared by the Office apps. You can display items that have been cut or copied to the Clipboard in the Clipboard pane. The Clipboard stores items that have been cut or copied from any Office app Chapter 4: Enter and edit text on slides You can cut and copy content to the Clipboard and paste the most recent item from the Clipboard without displaying the Clipboard pane.

If you want to work with items other than the most recent, you can display the Clipboard pane and then do so. If you make a change and then realize that you made a mistake, you can easily reverse, or undo, one or more recent changes. Doubleclick the icon of the slide whose bullet points you want to hide. Double-click again to redisplay the bullet points. To expand or collapse the entire outline at once, right-click the title of a slide, point to Expand or Collapse, and then click Expand All or Collapse All.

In addition to moving and copying text, you can also simply delete it. The easiest way to do this is by using the Delete key or the Backspace key.

Format text placeholders The text placeholders on slide layouts provide a consistent appearance and location of slide content. However, if you want to draw attention to a slide or one of its elements, you can do so effectively by making specific placeholders stand out. When a placeholder is selected, the Format tool tab appears on the ribbon, because placeholders are actually text-box shapes that can be manipulated like any other shape. You can outline or fill the placeholder, or add a visual effect to it, by using the commands in the Shape Styles group.

Your changes affect only the selected placeholder, not corresponding placeholders on other slides. To select any amount of adjacent content, hold down the Shift key and then click at the end of the content that you want to select. To select a word, double-click anywhere in the word. PowerPoint selects the word and the space immediately after the word, but not any punctuation after the word. To select a bulleted list item, click the bullet either on the slide or in the Outline pane.

To select all the text on a slide, click its slide icon in the Outline pane. To select all the objects on a slide, click in any placeholder, and then click its border, which becomes solid instead of dashed. Click the Select button, and then click Select All. To select a paragraph, triple-click anywhere in the paragraph. To select non-adjacent words, lines, or paragraphs, select the first text segment and then hold down the Ctrl key while selecting the next text segment.

Click anywhere in the window other than the selection area. To cut text to the Clipboard 1. To copy text to the Clipboard 1. To paste the most recent item from the Clipboard 1. Right-click where you want to insert the text, and then in the Paste Options section of the menu, click a paste option. You can control the format of content as you paste it Move, copy, and delete text To move text 1.

Drag the text from the original location to the new location. To copy text from one location to another 4 1. Hold down the Ctrl key and drag the text from the original location to the new location. To display the Clipboard pane 1. On the Home tab, click the Clipboard dialog box launcher.

To manage cut and copied items in the Clipboard pane 1. To paste all the items stored on the Clipboard at the same location, click the Paste All button at the top of the Clipboard pane. To remove an item from the Clipboard, point to the item in the Clipboard pane, click the arrow that appears, and then click Delete. To remove all items from the Clipboard, click the Clear All button at the top of the Clipboard pane. At the bottom of the pane, click Options, and then click the display option you want.

Clipboard pane display options To undo your last editing action 1. To undo two or more actions 1. On the Quick Access Toolbar, in the Undo list, click the first action you want to undo. Word reverts that action and all those that follow.

You can change that number from the Advanced page of the PowerPoint Options dialog box. To delete only one or a few characters 1. Position the cursor immediately to the left of the text you want to delete. Press the Delete key once for each character you want to delete.

Position the cursor immediately to the right of the text you want to delete. Press the Backspace key once for each character you want to delete. To delete any amount of text 1. Select the text you want to delete. Press the Delete key or the Backspace key. For an individual paragraph, you can change these and other settings, which are collectively called paragraph formatting.

After clicking anywhere in the paragraph to select it, you can make changes by using the commands in the Paragraph group on the Home tab. In this dialog box, you can also indent individual bullet points without changing them to subpoints. In addition to changing the look of paragraphs, you can manipulate the look of individual words by manually applying settings that are collectively called character formatting.

After selecting the characters you want to format, you make changes by using the commands in the Font group on the Home tab. You can quickly apply formatting by clicking buttons on the Mini Toolbar After you format the text on a slide, you might find that you want to adjust the way lines break to achieve a more balanced look.

This is often the case with slide titles, but bullet points and regular text can sometimes benefit from a few manually inserted line breaks. To apply character attributes to text 1. To change text casing 1. On the Home tab, in the Font group, click the Change Case button, and then click the case you want.

Click More Spacing to display the Character Spacing page of the Font dialog box, and then specify the space you want between characters. To change the font color of existing text 1. Select the text you want to format.

On the Home tab, in the Font group, click the Font Color arrow. In the Standard Colors palette, click any color swatch. To convert bulleted list items to regular text paragraphs 1.

Select the bulleted list items that you want to convert. To convert a bulleted list to a numbered list or a numbered list to a bulleted list 1.

Select the bulleted or numbered list items, and then click the Bullets or Numbering button, respectively. To change the style of bullets or numbering 1.

Click the Bullets or Numbering arrow, and then click the style you want in the gallery. To change the alignment of text 1. To align text against both the left and right edges, adding space between words to fill the line, click the Justify button. This option works only if the paragraph contains more than one line. To align text vertically at the top, in the middle, or at the bottom of the placeholder, click the Align Text button.

Format characters and paragraphs 1. To change line spacing 1. On the Home tab, in the Paragraph group, click the Line Spacing button, and then click the spacing you want. On the Home tab, click the Paragraph dialog box launcher to open the Paragraph dialog box. In the Paragraph dialog box, you can set alignment, indentation, line spacing, and paragraph spacing all in one place 3. To insert a line break in a paragraph 1. Unlike the somewhat clumsy WordArt of the past that inserted independent objects with rather garish designs, WordArt now consists of predefined artistic text effects that you can apply to any text or insert independently.

Applying a WordArt text effect retains the original font and font size but adds various font color, gradient, outline, dimensional, and reflection elements. These are simply text boxes that contain only the WordArt-formatted text. You can modify and format them just as you do any other text boxes.

As with other color effects, WordArt fill, outline, and glow colors are based on the presentation color scheme. If you change the theme or color scheme, these will automatically update to match other color scheme—controlled elements. Outline, fill, and effect colors all reference the current color scheme Chapter 4: Enter and edit text on slides The most interesting feature of WordArt formatting is the text effects that you can apply.

You can actually apply these text effects to any text, not only to text that has a WordArt format applied. Some of these are familiar concepts and others are unique to WordArt—in particular, transformation, which is reminiscent of the original WordArt options.

You can choose from several text effects, including Transform text effects, which result in a warping of the text In each of the text effect categories, you can choose a preformatted option or create a unique combination. Select the text that you want to format. In the gallery, click the WordArt effect that you want to apply. To insert a WordArt text object 1. On the Insert tab, in the Text group, click the WordArt button. In the WordArt gallery, click the WordArt style that you want, to insert a text box that contains placeholder text in the middle of the slide.

Replace the placeholder text with your own text. To modify WordArt formatting 1. Select the WordArt object or formatted text. On the Text Fill menu, select a different color or a picture, gradient, or texture fill for the lettering. On the Text Outline menu, select a different color, weight, or pattern for the letter outlines.

On the Text Effects menu, modify the shadow, reflection, glow, bevel, rotation, or transformation of the text. Click the WordArt object to activate its handles. Drag the angle handles yellow circles to change the angles or curves of the text within the object.

Drag the rotate handle circling arrow to rotate the object on the slide. Click away from the object to display the effect of your changes. Configure AutoCorrect options PowerPoint uses the AutoCorrect feature to identify and automatically correct many common capitalization and spelling errors.

You can customize AutoCorrect to recognize misspellings you routinely enter or to ignore text you do not want AutoCorrect to change. You can also create your own AutoCorrect substitutions to automate the entry of frequently used text. On the menu, click the appropriate correction option.

However, most misspellings are the result of erratic finger-positioning errors or memory lapses. You can use one of the following two methods to ensure that the words in your presentations are spelled correctly in spite of these random occurrences. By default, the PowerPoint spelling checker checks the spelling of the entire presentation—all slides, outlines, notes pages, and handout pages—against its built-in dictionary.

To draw attention to words that are not in its dictionary and that might be misspelled, PowerPoint underlines them with a red wavy underline. You can right-click a word with a red wavy underline to display a menu with a list of possible spellings and actions. You can choose the correct spelling from the menu, tell PowerPoint to ignore the word, or add the word to a supplementary dictionary explained later in this topic.

PowerPoint then works its way through the presentation. If it encounters a word that is not in its dictionary, it displays the word in the Spelling pane. After you indicate how PowerPoint should deal with the word—by ignoring it, ignoring all instances of it, adding it to the supplementary dictionary, changing it to the suggested spelling, or changing all instances of it to the suggested spelling—it moves on and displays the next word that is not in its dictionary, and so on.

If PowerPoint flags a word or phrase that is written in another language, you can mark it as such. Then, PowerPoint will cease to flag that word or phrase as a misspelling. You can mark a flagged word or phrase as a foreign word Check spelling and choose the best wording You cannot make changes to the main dictionary in PowerPoint, but you can add correctly spelled words that are flagged as misspellings to the PowerPoint supplementary dictionary called CUSTOM.

You can also create and use custom dictionaries and use dictionaries from other Microsoft apps. Language is often contextual. The language you use in a presentation to members of a club is different from the language you use in a business presentation.

You can then either click one of the suggested words or click Thesaurus to open the Thesaurus pane. Enter the text, and then click Find Next. Enter the text you want to find and what you want to replace it with, click Find Next, and then click Replace to replace the found occurrence or Replace All to replace all occurrences.

Again, you can specify whether to match capitalization and whole words. You can also click the Replace arrow, and in the Replace list, click Replace Fonts to open the Replace Font dialog box.

Here, you can specify the font you want to change and the font you want PowerPoint to replace it with. To correct spelling errors on a slide 1. Right-click any word that has a wavy red underline. PowerPoint displays suggested spelling corrections at the top of the shortcut menu. Click any of the suggested corrections to replace the word.

Select or click in a word. Point to the word you want to use, click the arrow that appears, and then click Insert. To mark a word as written in a specific language 1. Select a word that has a wavy red underline.

In the Language dialog box, click the language. To check the spelling of an entire presentation 1. Press F7. The Spelling pane opens and displays the first possible error. The corresponding text on the slide is highlighted. Click Add to add the word to the custom dictionary on your computer.

Select the correct spelling of the word in the suggestions list, and then click Change to change only this instance of the word or Change All to change all instances of this word in the document. Select the correct usage in the suggestions list, and click Change to change the selection to the new usage. When you click a button to fix or ignore the issue, the spelling and grammar checker moves to the next word that Word does not recognize.

After the last selection has been addressed, Word displays a message indicating that it has finished checking the spelling and grammar of the document. Click OK to close the message box. From the Backstage view, open the PowerPoint Options dialog box.

Display the Proofing page. In the When correcting spelling in Microsoft Office programs section of the Proofing page, click the Custom Dictionaries button. The Custom Dictionaries dialog box displays the dictionaries that Office apps consult.

Select the dictionary that has default after the name. Then click the Edit Word List button. To remove a word from the dictionary, click it in the Dictionary pane, and then click Delete. Enter text on slides Open the EnterText presentation and perform the following tasks: 1. Display slide 1 in Normal view, and then in the placeholder, enter Wide World Importers as the presentation title. In the subtitle placeholder, enter Where we are, where we are going, how we are going to get there…and how long it is going to take.

Display slide 2 in Outline view. In the Outline pane, next to the slide 2 location, enter Expanding to the UK. Press Enter, and then press Tab to create a first-level bullet. Enter Preparing for a buying trip, and then press Enter. Demote the Know your needs bullet to a second-level bullet point. Reduce the size of the text in the text box to 12 point and set that size as the default for all text boxes.

Add a slide footer that includes the text Wide World Importers and set it so that it does not appear on the title slide. Close the presentation. Move, copy, and delete text Open the EditText presentation, and then perform the following tasks: 1. Display slide 2 in Normal view and, in the first bullet, delete the word buying. Switch to Outline view. In the Outline pane, in the second bullet point on slide 6, replace the word good with the word lasting. Notice that the text is replaced in both the Outline pane and the Slide pane.

On slide 5, move the entire Know the culture bullet point by cutting it from its current location and pasting it to the left of Know your customers on slide 3. Switch to Normal view, and then on slide 3, in the Slide pane, move the Know your needs bullet point and its subpoints as a unit by dragging it to the left of Read the Buyer Manuals. Undo the action in step 5.

Restore that editing action. Format characters and paragraphs Open the FormatText presentation, and then perform the following tasks: 1. On slide 1, select Flowers in nature and arrangements, and use the Mini Toolbar to make the words italic. Display slide 2, select the entire bulleted list and then increase the font size until the setting in the Font Size box is Clear the formatting to return the font size to 24 the original size. Change the font color to yellow. Convert the bullet points to regular text paragraphs.

Select all the paragraphs, and then open the Paragraph dialog box. Change the Alignment setting to Centered. In the Spacing area, enter 0 in the Before box, and then increase the After setting to 24 pt.

On slide 7, insert a line break to the left of the word of. On slide 1, select the Litware, Inc. Replace the placeholder text with Objective: Author Satisfaction. On the Text Outline menu, click the Black, Text 1 swatch. Resize the WordArt object to make it smaller. Rotate the WordArt object so that it runs diagonally across the slide, from the upper-left to the lower-right. On slide 3, replace infermation, which PowerPoint has flagged as a possible error with a red wavy underline, with information.

Display slide 1. Check the spelling of the entire presentation, and then do the following: a. For purposes of this task, assume that this is a common abbreviation for Community Service Committee. DIC dictionary. Delete the duplicated word to. Change the word employes to employees. Change the word succesful to successful. Proof the slides and correct these errors manually. Remove CSCom from the supplementary dictionary. On slide 1, replace the word executing with the word completing by using the Thesaurus pane.

Tables provide a tidy structure for the presentation of text and numeric information in rows and columns, so that identifying categories or individual items and making comparisons is easier. You can insert a table on any PowerPoint slide, regardless of whether it includes a content placeholder. If the information you want to present is already in a tabular format—for example, in a Microsoft Word document or a Microsoft Excel workbook—you can copy the existing table to your slide and then modify it as necessary to fit your presentation.

After you insert a table, whether blank or from another source, you can modify its structure and formatting. This chapter guides you through procedures related to inserting tables, formatting tables, modifying table structure, and embedding and linking to Excel content.

You can specify the number of rows and columns you want to start with, and then modify the table as necessary to fit its content. After you specify the number of columns and rows you want in the blank table, PowerPoint creates the table structure.

By default, the table matches the color scheme of the presentation theme. The first row is formatted as a header row, and the subsequent rows are banded.

You can then add data, add or remove rows and columns, change the table elements that are emphasized, and change the table formatting. Often the first row of a table is used for column headings, and the leftmost column is used for row headings. When you paste a table from another source onto a slide, a Paste Options button appears.

Clicking the button displays a menu of options for pasting the table. It applies the fonts, colors, and effects of the slide theme to the table. The table can be modified. The table cannot be modified other than by applying image formatting. As you point to each option, the table appearance updates to reflect what the table will look like if you choose that option. The options on the Paste Options menu vary based on the object being pasted.

If a slide contains content you want to display in a tabular format, consider copying the text to a document, converting it to a table, and then copying the table to the slide. To insert a blank table on a slide 1. On any slide, on the Insert tab, in the Tables group, click the Table button, and then click Insert Table. You can insert a table from a content placeholder or the Insert tab Insert tables 2.

In the Insert Table dialog box, specify the Number of columns and the Number or rows you want. On the Insert menu, in the Tables group, click the Table button and then point to the cell grid to indicate the size in rows and columns of the table you want to create. If you need a larger table, use a different method or insert columns and rows after you create the table. Release the mouse button to insert a table of the selected dimensions. Open the document, and locate the table that you want to copy to the slide.

Switch to PowerPoint and display the slide that you want to insert the table on. Right-click the slide, click Paste Options, and then click the paste option you want. On the Home tab, in the Clipboard group, click the Paste button. To insert a table from an Excel worksheet on a slide 1. Open the workbook, and locate the table or data range that you want to copy to the slide. Select the table or data range, and then copy the selection to the Clipboard. Switch to PowerPoint, and display the slide that you want to insert the table on.

Paste the copied table from the Clipboard to the slide. To move a table on a slide 1. Click the table frame to select the table. When the cursor changes to a fourheaded arrow, press and hold the mouse button and drag the table to its new location.

To enter text in a table cell 1. Select text that you want to paste into the table, click the cell you want to paste the text into, and then paste the text. If your original text comes from another table, you can copy and paste multiple cells of content at a time.

To move the cursor to the next table cell 1. Press Tab. When you press Tab in the last cell in a row, PowerPoint moves to the first cell in the next row. When you press Tab after the last cell in the table, PowerPoint adds a new row to the table and places the cursor in the first cell in that row.

Format tables When you insert a table on a slide or paste a formatted table from a Word document or Excel workbook, the table takes on the color scheme of the theme that is applied to the presentation. If you insert a blank table, it is formatted to support a heading row and to emphasize band every other row to help readers distinguish between separate rows of information. You work with tables in PowerPoint in much the same way as you work with tables in Word. You can format an entire table or individual cells by using the commands on the Design and Layout tool tabs, which appear when a table is active.

The Design and Layout tool tabs for tables For example, you can use commands on the Design tool tab to switch to a different table style and apply options that change the text or cell formatting to make key information stand out. If you want, you can also format individual words and individual cells.

The selected table style options emphasize the header row, total row, and first column, and apply shading to every other row The available table styles reflect the color scheme of the theme that is applied to the presentation. You can do that by removing the fill color and borders from the cells that you want to disappear. Click anywhere in the table.

The Design and Format tool tabs appear on the ribbon. To lect an entire table 1. The table does not change to indicate that it is selected. To select rows or columns 1. Point to the outer edge of a row or column. When the cursor changes to an arrow, click to select the row or column. Drag to select additional contiguous rows or columns.

Drag through all the cells of a row or all the cells of a column. The selected rows or columns are shaded. Click the first cell, hold down the Shift key, and then press the arrow keys to select adjacent cells. Click the first cell, hold down the Shift key, and then click the last cell. The selected cells are shaded. Show less Show more Performance and Analytics ON OFF If you agree, we will use cookies to understand how customers use our services for example, by measuring site visits so we can make improvements.

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