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Clinical significance: Conventional dental stone casts could be accurately duplicated using some of the additive manufacturing technologies tested. Pau Cahuana Bartra. American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics. Mark Hans. Polymer additive manufacturing AM technologies have been incorporated in digital workflows within implant dentistry. This article reviews the main polymer AM technologies in implant dentistry, as well as their applications in the field such as manufacturing surgical guides, custom trays, working implant casts, and provisional restorations.
Mauricio Reyes. The advent of imaging software programs has proved to be useful for diagnosis, treatment planning, and outcome measurement, but precision of 3-dimensional 3D surgical simulation still needs to be tested. This study was conducted to determine whether the virtual surgery performed on 3D models constructed from cone-beam computed tomography CBCT can correctly simulate the actual surgical outcome and to validate the ability of this emerging technology to recreate the orthognathic surgery hard tissue movements in 3 translational and 3 rotational planes of space.
Construction of pre- and postsurgery 3D models from CBCTs of 14 patients who had combined maxillary advancement and mandibular setback surgery and 6 patients who had 1-piece maxillary advancement surgery was performed.
The postsurgery and virtually simulated surgery 3D models were registered at the cranial base to quantify differences between simulated and actual surgery models. Hotelling t tests were used to assess the differences between simulated and actual surgical outcomes. For all anatomic regions of interest, there was no statistically significant difference between the simulated and the actual surgical models. The right lateral ramus was the only region that showed a statistically significant, but small difference when comparing 2- and 1-jaw surgeries.
Virtual surgical methods were reliably reproduced. Oral surgery residents could benefit from virtual surgical training. Computer simulation has the potential to increase predictability in the operating room. Purpose of Review This review aimed to illustrate the utility of additive manufacturing technologies for the fabrication of polymer, metal, and ceramic components within the confines of their current and potential clinical applications in dentistry.
Recent Findings The literature reviewed on five additive manufacturing technologies, namely, vat-polymerization, material jetting, material extrusion, powder-based fusion, and binder jetting, have been investigated in relevance to their dental applications.
These technologies have the following existing or potential clinical applications: diagnostic and definitive casts, custom trays, positioning guides for custom abutments, tooth preparation guides, interim dental restorations, all-ceramic crowns, metal crowns and copings, silicone indices, occlusal devices, complete dentures, wax patterns for intra-and extra-coronal restorations, surgical guides, removable partial dentures, and tooth-or implant-supported frameworks.
Summary Vat-polymerization, material jetting, and powder-based fusion technologies have existing clinical applications utilizing mainly polymers and metals.
Additive manufacturing technologies need further development to be used with ceramic materials for dental applications. An appropriate treatment plan from a diagnostic waxing is integral to successful esthetic treatment.
The DLP projector displays the image of the 3D model on the liquid photopolymer. Flexible silicone indices were designed as 2 pieces, labial and lingual, which were adapted into a clear rigid custom tray.
The workflow facilitated the esthetic treatment of maxil-lary anterior teeth. ABSTRACT The present article describes a digital workflow for planning an esthetic treatment by using a facial and intraoral scanner, the dental and open-source software design of a facially generated diagnostic waxing, and additive manufactured AM clear silicone indices. A virtual design was created to fabricate a unique 3-piece AM index composed of flexible, clear silicone at the labial and lingual aspects and a rigid clear custom tray.
The 3-piece AM clear indexes provided advantages compared with conventional procedures, including accurate reproduction of the digital diagnostic waxing, control of index thickness, various insertion paths of the silicone indices, flexibility of the indices, and online storage of the designs.
Alan Lowe. Fernanda Almeida. IOSR Journals. Nikolaos Gkantidis , Pawel Pazera. Tatjana Dostalova , Magdalena Kasparova. Zabalegui Ortodoncia. Philip Benington , Ashraf Ayoub. Martin Styner. Eduardo Franzotti Sant’Anna. Jonathan Sandler. Tancan Uysal. Alessandra Putrino.
International journal of oral and maxillofacial surgery. Filip Schutyser. Ronald Gallerano. Arthur Miller. Kevin McCaffrey. Marcos Freitas. Marco de Oliveira Almeida. Jomy Varghese. Abbas alipour. Shreyash Patel. American journal of orthodontics and dentofacial orthopedics : official publication of the American Association of Orthodontists, its constituent societies, and the American Board of Orthodontics.
Ary dos Santos-Pinto. Robin Yong. Moshe Davidovitch. Allahyar Geramy. Ulkem Cilasun. Eric Jein Wein Liou. Devinder Preet Singh. Reham Abdelsalam. Log in with Facebook Log in with Google. Remember me on this computer. Enter the email address you signed up with and we’ll email you a reset link. Need an account? Click here to sign up. Download Free PDF. Precision and trueness of maxillary crowded models produced by 2 vat photopolymerization 3-dimensional printing techniques.
Duarte Marques. Related Papers. American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics A comparison of scanned lateral cephalograms with corresponding original radiographs. An update on applications of 3D printing technologies used for processing polymers used in implant dentistry. Digital workflow for an esthetic rehabilitation using a facial and intraoral scanner and an additive manufactured silicone index: A dental technique.
Methods: A digital crowded maxillary arch with a T-shaped base and 2 hemispheres of 2. The copies were scanned using the D 3Shape desktop scanner and assessed for precision and true- ness via arch superimpositions and hemisphere measurements. Mann-Whitney U tests were used to compare trueness and precision among printers.
Hemisphere radius was compared with the reference measurement and between 3-dimensional printers using 1 sample and independent Student t tests, respectively a 5 0.
The color map model analysis indicated greater distortion on premolar and molar surfaces, with a higher range of contraction on the SLA and both contraction and expansion on the DLP. Anterior and posterior hemisphere radius registered increased values with DLP 1.
Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop ; O ver the last years, the rapid development of dig- technology is also referred to as rapid prototyping RP ital technology has raised the interest in the or 3D printing. This the reference model ISO This creates de Lisboa, Lisbon, Portugal. All rights reserved. Higher trueness was found in polyJet printed models, although SLA revealed better precision. In another study,10 orthodontic patients with mild, moderate, and severe crowded arches were selected, in which white stone models were compared with color jet printing technique, Z Printer The authors concluded that RP replicas were not acceptable to replace stone models, especially for appliance construction.
In the literature, the few studies in which the vat polymerization printers were used present a limited number of printed replicas. Moreover, most of the research was done in aligned models, but crowded arches are frequently seen in the orthodontic practice. Models were also printed without reference structures of well-known dimensions, which can be used for calibration.
In one study, the base of the models was removed to avoid Fig 1. A Reference crowded maxillary arch with a T-shape superimposition distortions. For the overall sample, the null roots. The model was scanned using a desktop scanner hypothesis was that no differences would be found be- D; 3Shape, Copenhagen, Denmark into a tween SLA and DLP printing techniques in trueness computer-aided design software 3Shape, Copenhagen, and precision when producing 3D dental models.
A sec- Denmark. These using 14 maxillary acrylic teeth from a Typodont were used as standard measurements. The gingiva cut was format STL and used as the reference model. The SLA ical crown, after the contour of the gingival margin. Beige dental model resin Formlabs was used tion software tool to obtain a rough alignment of the as the printing material for this technique.
Beige photopolymer and trueness was assessed by the comparison of each resin NextDent Model 2. After Regarding arch superimposition data, trueness was production, replicas were manually rinsed in 2 consecu- measured by superimposing SLA and DLP replicas with tive methyl alcohol To determine superimposi- were computed using SPSS software version Descriptive analysis included the different cutting methods Fig 2. Cuts on the base, gingiva, and teeth to analyze the superimposition process.
Using the same coordinate system, RMS compared throughout the analysis. Shapiro-Wilk tests were used to verify normality Mean, standard deviation, and range with minimum before proceeding with Mann-Whitney U tests to and maximum values for trueness and precision of the compare trueness and precision between printers.
Hemi- maxillary crowded printed models are described in sphere radius and areas were compared with the refer- Table III. The preliminary cut analysis was car- Table III. Comparisons performed with Mann-Whitney U test. SD, Standard deviation; Max, maximum; Min, minimum. DLP printer con- ity of the research in this area used 3D printed models tracted the buccal molar surfaces and the molar and pre- with a horseshoe-shaped base.
Examples of color map arch with a T-shaped base was used to overcome these displacement for each printer are shown in Figure 3. A prior investi- Digital models have been considered by some authors gation, using different printers and manufacturing con- the new gold standard in orthodontic practice.
However, four 3D and built appliances,28 indirect bracket bonding29 and replicas from the 10 copies printed showed increased templates for mini-implant placement or minimally distortion, providing worse results.
These problems invasive corticotomies. Colored map of an example 3D digital copy superimposed on the reference model for SLA and DLP printers occlusal, lateral, and frontal views.
Mean 6 SD and P values from hemisphere increased, resulting in copies of less quality. However, radius measurements by printer SLA and DLP some authors found no statistical differences when 3D printer technique reducing layer thickness, proposing mm of layer height as clinically acceptable when evaluating treat- Radius mm SLA DLP P value ment outcomes for diagnosis and treatment planning.
Because of the increase in print- SD, Standard deviation. For the arch superimposition, trim was made on the To increase the repeatability by avoiding the variance base, the gingiva, and the teeth. This was an innovation in the revealed that excellent reliability could be achieved by technique. The localization of the hemisphere and the trimming on the gingiva and the teeth, but not on the measurement of the radius were made by the software bases Table II.
This could be caused by differences in without operator intervention. Results registered the cuts because references for the base are less precise increased values on the anterior and posterior hemi- than references for the teeth and the gingiva.
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